Informations about Poland

/ Doing Business in Poland

Introduction

Poland, officially Rzeczpospolita Polska, is a democratic state in Central Europe. Capital and largest city of the country is Warsaw. With an area of 312,696 km², Poland is the ninth largest country in Europe and ranks 69th among the world's largest countries. Poland borders Russia and Lithuania to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south and Germany to the west. Geographically Poland is a lowland country. Catholics form the dominant religion of the country.

Since 1 May 2004, Poland is a Member State of the European Union. The country is also a member of the UN, OECD, NATO and the OSCE.


Population

With a population of 38.2 million, Poland is the fifth largest country in Europe and 38th in the world. Average population density is 122 residents per square kilometer, although this is strongly diversified between the relatively densely populated south and the north. There are 22.9 million people (60.9%) living in 964 cities and 15.3 million (39.1%) living in rural areas. Poland is, from the point of view of ethnicity, a rather homogeneous country. National minorities, of which there are nine recognized The largest ethnic minorities are Ukrainian, German, Belarusian, and Roma. About 21 million people of Polish descent live abroad, of which more than 10 million have settled in the United States.


Major cities

Twenty-six cities have populations of more than 100,000 people, four of which have populations of more than 500,000. The largest cities are: Warsaw (1.79 million inhabitants), Kraków (781,000), Łódź (677,000), Wrocław (644,000), Poznań (534,000), Gdańsk (472,000), Szczecin (401,000), Bydgoszcz (347,000), Lublin (340,000) and Białystok (298,000).


Language

The official language is Polish, which belongs to a western branch of the Slavic languages. It is used by almost 100% of society, with Ukrainian, German, Lithuanian and Belorussian being minority languages. Numerous dialects exist, reflecting in part German and Ukrainian influences. These are used above all by elderly people. The Polish language is written in the Latin alphabet; it possesses more letters and special marks than the German alphabet.


Religion

Around 84% of Poles are Roman Catholic, and the Roman Catholic Church, with 41 dioceses and over 10,000 parishes, exerts a significant influence on society. In 1978 the Polish cardinal Karol Wojtyła was elected as the Pope and took the name of John Paul II. Also functioning in Poland are c. 35 other churches and religious communities, with approximately 900,000 members in total. Seven of these churches belong to the Polish Ecumenical Council. The largest of these communities is the Orthodox Church with over 500,000 adherents, Jehovah's Witnesses with over 100,000 preachers, and the Evangelical Augsburg Church with tens of thousands of believers. Under communist government the Roman Catholic Church held great political power, being a center for the opposition, particularly in the 1970s and 1980s.


Holidays:

  • January 1 - New Year's Day ,
  • January 6 - Epiphany,
  • Easter,
  • Easter Monday,
  • May 1 - Labour Day,
  • May 3 - Constitution Day,
  • Corpus Christi,
  • August 15 - Assumption of Mary,
  • November 1 - All Saints' Day,
  • November 11 - Independence Day ,
  • December 25 - Christmas Day,
  • December 26 - Christmas Day.
Last update : 27.04.2022

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