The following are subject to VAT: chargeable delivery of goods and provision of services in Poland, export of goods, import of goods, intra-Community acquisition of goods for remuneration in Poland, and intra-Community delivery of goods.
As a rule, the turnover, meaning the receivables from sales less imput tax, is the tax base.
Legal persons, unincorporated organisations and natural persons who run businesses regardless of their purpose or results are taxable persons.
Until the end of 2010, the basic VAT rate was 22%; there was also a reduced rate of 7% and 3% (for foodstuffs) and 0% (for books and magazines). From 1 January 2011, the basic VAT rate will be 23%; there is also a reduced rate of 8% and another reduced rate of 5% (for food and books). Raising the basic rate to 23% and the reduced rate of 8% is a temporary measure (3 years).
The Tax Ordinance sets out general rules for paying taxes.
Income tax as applicable to businesses is regulated by the following acts:
Corporation tax is paid by:
- legal persons;
- unincorporated organisations;
- tax groups of companies;
- companies whose registered office or board is registered in another country; under certain conditions and in accordance with the tax regulations of that country.
Corporation taxpayers pay tax only on income obtained in Poland if their registered office or board is not registered in Poland.
All natural persons, including partners in partnerships and private partnerships, pay income tax. Natural persons who are not resident in Poland are only subject to tax on income (revenues) obtained in Poland (limited tax obligation).
Revenues obtained in Poland are understood to mean revenues from:
- work performed in Poland on the basis of an employment relationship, service relationship or cooperative employment relationship, irrespective of the place where payment is made;
- activity performed personally in Poland irrespective of the place where payment is made;
- business activity carried out in Poland;
- real estate located in Poland, including sales of such real estate.
Income is subject to tax irrespective of where it is obtained. Income means the revenues less costs of obtaining the income in a given tax year.
In the case of corporate taxpayers whose registered office or board are not in Poland, when it is not possible to determine their income on the basis of accounting data, their income is estimated using an income index in relation to revenues, which is 5% for retail and wholesale trade and 10% for construction and transport services.
Corporation tax rate is 19%.
Entrepreneurs who are natural persons can pay the tax rate of 18% or 32% for a threshold of PLN 85 528, or pay a rate of 19%. In certain cases, an entrepreneur can decide on one of the forms of lump-sum income tax: lump-sum tax on recorded revenue or flat rate tax.
All natural persons, including partners in partnerships and private partnerships pay income tax. Natural persons who are not resident in Poland pay tax on income obtained only in Poland (limited tax obligation).
In some cases, businesses are required to pay other taxes and local fees, which are a source of revenue for local authorities. In the case of taxes on property and means of transport, local authorities have the right to set rates and the relevant relief for these taxes, including tax relief that are part of programmes supporting businesses.
Information about current tax rates and relief in a given location can be found on the websites of the relevant local authorities.
The Local Taxes and Fees Act governs property tax.
Tax on civil law transactions
Tax on civil law transactions is governed by the Tax on Civil Law Transactions Act.
Taxpayers do not have to submit income tax returns during the tax year in which they are obliged to pay tax advances.
Taxpayers who are legal persons must submit tax returns stating the level of income (or loss) achieved in a tax year by the end of the third month of the next year. Within this period, they must also pay tax due or the difference between the tax due on the income as indicated in their tax return and the tax advances from the beginning of the year.
Taxpayers who are natural persons must submit tax returns for a given tax year by 30 April of the next year For taxpayers who pay tax in the form of a lump-sum calculated on recorded revenue the deadline is 31 January of the next year.
Taxpayers pay advances monthly; small taxpayers and taxpayers who start a business can pay taxes quarterly.
During the tax year, taxpayers can take advantage of a simplified system of paying tax advances based on monthly payments of 1/12 of the amount of tax due.
Small taxpayers and taxpayers who start a business can pay tax advances quarterly.
Taxes that are not paid by the deadline become tax arrears, on which statutory interest is charged from the first day after the payment deadline.
When arrears are paid after the deadline, companies must calculate interest due and pay the tax arrears as well as the interest due. Statutory interest is currently 15% per annum.
Tax proceedings are a two-instance process.
Appeals against decisions of tax offices (tax authorities of first instance) can be lodged with directors of tax chambers. Second-instance rulings are final. Appeals against them can be lodged with administrative courts.